Blood Relations and Family Tree

Video Lesson on Blood Relations and Family Tree


Blood relations is a very important topic of any Aptitude Test. Such questions may be asked directly or may be given in the form of coded blood relations or data sufficiency questions. Some of the tricks to solve Blood relations questions are as following:

  1. Apply the question to yourself
  2. Break the question into very small parts
  3. Do not assume the gender
  4. Draw clear diagrams as you solve

It defines relation among different members of a family. Association between two persons can be by birth or by law.


Mother-Son, Grandfather- Grandson Relationship are all by birth relationships whereas,
All in-laws' relationships like "father in law - son in law", "mother in law-daughter in law" can be classified under "Relationships by law".

Importance of topic

i) This is one of the most important topics in logical reasoning.
ii) Questions from this topic are asked in almost all the examinations like ISSB, NUST NET, and others.

Key Points

i) No illegal Relations.
(1) A Husband can't have two wives.
(2) No girlfriends / boyfriends.
ii) Never judge gender from name. E.g. "Kiran" can be a Male or a Female.


Go through all the relationships mentioned in the family tree. It will help you in identifying the relationships easily.

Father of Father or Mother Grand Father
Mother of Father or Mother Grand Mother
Wife of Grandfather Grand Mother
Husband of Grand Mother Grand Father
Father - in - Law of Father/Mother Grand Father
Mother - in - Law of Father/Mother Grand Mother
Father’s Father/Mother only son Father
Brother of Father or Mother Uncle
Sister of Father or Mother Aunt
Son of Grand Father/Grand Mother Father/Uncle
Daughter of Father - in - Law/Mother - in - Law of Father Mother / Aunt
Father of Wife/Husband Father - in - Law
Mother of Wife/Husband Mother - in - Law
Father’s / Mother’s only son/daughter Oneself
Son / Daughter of Uncle/Aunt Cousin
Brother of Husband or Wife Brother - in - Law
Sister of Husband or Wife Sister - in - Law
Husband of Sister/ Sister - in - Law Brother - In - Law
Son of Brother or Sister Nephew
Daughter of Brother or Sister Niece
Husband of Daughter Son - in - Law
Wife of Brother / Brother - in - Law Sister - in - Law
Wife of Son Daughter - in - Law


i) Use symbols and notations like +, -, =, etc. for depicting relationship among two members.
E.g. Sara is a wife of Saleem, we can use = symbol for showing relationship Between Saleem and Sara. Like, Saleem = Sara.
ii) Try to solve the questions by applying it on one's own family.
iii) Break the given sentence at is/was/as and resolve it from last point to is/was/as to get easy solution for the problem

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Types of Questions

In Blood Relations there are mainly 3 types of questions asked.

1) Round-About Questions

These are Relations between two people only and questions are asked in a round-about manner.

For example:

(A) Raheem introduces Parveen as the daughter of the only son of my father's wife. How is Parveen related to Raheem?

  1. Cousin
  2. Niece
  3. Daughter
  4. Aunt

Explanation: Break the given sentence at as.
Resolving from the last, In the view of Raheem,
My father's wife - mother
Only son of mother - himself i.e. Raheem
Daughter of Raheem - daughter.
So, answer is daughter.

(B) Introducing a girl, a boy said, "She is the daughter of the mother of the daughter of my aunt." How is the girl related to the boy?

  1. Cousin
  2. Niece
  3. Daughter
  4. Aunt

Explanation: Break the given sentence at is.
Resolving from the last,
Daughter of my aunt - cousin
Mother of my cousin - aunt
Daughter of my aunt - cousin.
So, answer is cousin.

Section MCQ Full Section (3 MCQ)
Topic Para Based MCQ
Topic Questions with Answers

2) Symbolic Relationships

In this type a symbol is used to donate a relationship between two persons. Symbols need to be decoded and solution is to be found. Consider following examples.

A) U + V means U is the brother of V,
W – X means W is the father of S,
X ÷ Y means X is the sister of Y,
Y × Z means Z is the mother of Y.
Which of the following means that N is the mother of O?

  1. L + M ÷ N – O
  2. L – M × O ÷ P
  3. N ÷ M × L ÷ O
  4. M + L ÷ O × N


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Explanation: M + L ÷ O × N means M is the brother of L and L is the sister of O and N is the mother of O. So, answer is M + L ÷ O × N.

Note: Use option elimination technique.(Match symbols in option according to question)

B) If A#B means A is the mother of B; A-B means A is brother of B; A%B means A is father of B; AXB means A is sister of B, which of the following shows that P is the maternal uncle of Q?

  1. Q – N # M X P
  2. P # S X N – Q
  3. P – M # N X Q
  4. Q – S % P


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Explanation: P - M # N X Q means P is the brother of M and Mis the mother of N and N is the sister of Q which means mother of Q is M and so P is maternal uncle of Q (Draw diagram if necessary while explaining). So, answer is P - M # N X Q.

Note: Use option elimination technique.(Match symbols in option according to question)

3) Mixed or Miscellaneous

In this type, mutual blood relationships among different members of a family are mentioned. These types of problems can be solved with the help of diagrams.
A) Read the information carefully and answer the question given below it.
1. A family consists of 6 members P, Q , R, X, Y, Z.
2. Q is the son of R but R is not mother of Q.
3. P and R are married couple.
4. Y is the brother of R, X is the daughter of P.
5. Z is the brother of P.


1. Who is the brother in law of R?
2. How many female members are there in the family?
3. How is Q related to X?
4. How is Y related to P?


Draw the diagram with given instructions below.
1. Q is son of R. draw this one with thick line in different horizontal rows. Both are male so take as'+'.
2. Use <=> between P and R in same row, because they are couple.
3. Add Y to R with dotted line in same row.
4. Add X to P with thick line downwards to different row. Here, X is '–'.
5. Add Z to P and take Z as '+'.
6. So, Q and X are brother & sister.
Note: First draw a complete diagram and then solve all the questions.

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1. Brother in law means wife's brother i.e. Z
2. Two female members are there with '-' symbols i.e. P and X.
3. Q is brother of X.
4. Y is husband's brother to P. i.e. brother in law.

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