What is Ideology?

Ideology does play every important role in the making and breaking of political fortunes. We can trace the hidden power of ideology in the ebb and flow of history. Dr.Shafique All Khan says in his book, Two Nation Theory, 'Ideology is a dynamic power behind every political course of action'. Great revolutions and revelations do possess a strong ideology, which V formulates the public attitude that converts into a force required for attaining the political or ideological goals. According to David Easton “No system can endure at least for very long without the presence of moderate belief in the legitimate values, consisting of articulated ethical interpretations and principles that set for the purposes of organizations and political life. Similarly Richard Corx says “ideology means the science of ideas.” In a broader sense an ideology is a set of beliefs, value, norms, symbols, goals and practices incorporated into generalized formulation of attitudes. These generalized formulations encompass salient, describe socio-economic and political relationships.

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Pakistan came into being for implementing the ideology as a sociopolitical reality. I H Quraishi says, Ideology of this V country signifies a complete code of life, formulated to meet the new needs in line with the logical requirement and cultural legacy of Islam. Ideology of Pakistan portrays a complete system for running the state-craft in a modern age.

1. Islam

Islam is the basic source of ideology. History provides a testimony to this assumption that commitment to Islamic way of life was the primary force behind struggle for freedom, concludes El Hamza in his work, Pakistan: a Nation. Islam as an ideology portrays guiding principles in all directions of all people of all ages. It has full. Potentialities to accommodate necessary changes and adjustments within the limits of Shariat. Islam is not merely a dogma or combination of rituals and customs but a translation into practice by the holy prophet (PBUH). That ideal model of Islamic polity provides guidelines to the succeeding generations.

2. Culture

Every age and every nation has its own political history, structure, value systems and culture so the second source of ideology of Pakistan is the cultural, social and political legacy of the Indian Muslims. Muslims of the Sub-continent evolved a distinct culture and pattern of life bearing deep imprints of an Islamic civilization, for instance, Indian Muslim culture and Urdu language.

3. Political

Political V ideology commands a very important position in every system of life and its real objective may be materialized through the implementation of its tenants by state machinery. An important source of political aspect of the ideology of Pakistan is the teachings and sayings of founding fathers. The role of the great leaders in shaping the political ideology is of utmost importance in the case of Pakistan.

Thus ideology of Pakistan portrays basic and guiding principles in all directions to construct Pakistani society on basis of Islam. Islam has its own objectives, value systems, structures and institutions that act as a source of popular inspirations. H V Hudson is right in saying that the unifying force of Islam can never be ignored in the making of Pakistan.

Islam commands the same position in the ideology of Pakistan as the blood has in living organism. Islam’s practical implication was the motives behind the Pakistan movement. It has been explicitly laid down in the preamble of every constitution of the Islamic republic of Pakistan that sovereignty belongs to Allah, and that no law will be enacted which is repugnant to’Shariat.

Two nation theory performed a key role in the struggle for freedom on account of a peculiar environmental setting of the Sub-continent. The very existence of Pakistan manifests this reality that Muslims are a separate nation from every point of view, stresses Dr Shafique Ali Khan. Their way of life, cultural patterns value Systems and national goals all stand distinct. From other nations. Allama lqbal presented in the most logical and c9nvlnclng manner, he prophesies the creation of a separate homeland for Muslims in. the sub-continent on the basis of Two Nation theory. He declared that a separate state was inevitable in order to preserve Islamic civilization in a concrete reality.

Democratic System

Political ideology signifies public participation in the collective life of the community as well as the affairs of the government. Though the political system has to be based on religion yet ‘it is not a theocracy in the true western sense. Nevertheless the structure of democracy shall be in accordance with .the sociocultural and political conditions within the framework of Islamic teachings. But at the same time maintaining the sovereignty of Allah would form the basis of the political system.

Economic Justice

Ideology of Pakistan aims at the welfare and betterment of the people. It has been explicitly laid down in almost all the constitutions that government is under an obligation to provide basic needs of life to all its citizens. Economic system of Islam is very close to the concept of the modern welfare state, argues Noreen Talha in her book, Economic Factors in, the Making of Pakistan.

Social Pattern

Ideology of Pakistan stands for a distinct cultural and social pattern of life. New value and cultural norms grew in this region due to the distinct geographical environments, racial and ethnic factors but the most important was Islam. All these customary ways of life that do not collide with the teachings of Islam, can be taken as the cultural heritage of the Muslims of the sub-continent. To sum up ideology of. Pakistan is the repository of a complete code of life having all the basic injunctions in au directions necessary for nation building. The solidarity, of Pakistani nation, lies in its adherence to the basic’ tenants ‘of this ideology. .. . ‘ .

On Muslim nationalism in India, lqbal described it as under:

  • it is not ‘the unity of language or country or the identity of economic interests that constitute the’ basic principles of our nationality, it is all because that we believe in a certain’ view of the universe... that we are member of society, founded by the. Prophet (PBUH). Islam abhors all material limitations. Its essence is neither temporal nor material, but, on spiritual upbringing.” On the role of religion in daily life of common being, says. Islam is the source. Of my life and behavior, and it has made me find what I am, by giving me religion, Literature and operative factors in my present conscious.” lqbal believes that the-religion and politics are not two distinct domains arid ‘if religion is excluded from the politics, the result is tyranny.
  • Moreover the life of Islam as 'cultural force’ in the country very largely depends on its centralization in a specified territory. He further said, “After a long and careful study of Islamic law, l have come to conclusion that if this system of law is properly understood and applied, at least, the., right of subsistence is secured to everybody. But the enforcement and development of the Shariat of Islam, is impossible in this country without a free Muslim state or states.
  • “Pakistan not means freedom and independence but, “the ‘Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope, others will share with us.
  • “It is my belief that our salvation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great law giver, the Prophet of Islam .Let us lay the foundation of our democracy on the basis of’ truly Islamic ideals and principles.”
  • “We must work our destiny in our way and present to the world an economic system, based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims, and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can’ save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind.”

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