Lesson: Analogies - 14

Analogies: Types - Contrary Meaning

In this type of word relationship, the two words run contrary to or are opposed to each other in meaning. On the , you’re unlikely to see two capitalized words that are perfect opposites (e.g., HOT : COLD); the test-makers prefer to hide the ball. So you must learn to distinguish among the following three patterns:

Impossible characteristic Mutually exclusive conditions

Lack or absence is part of the definition

Impossible Characteristics

“By definition, ________ cannot be characterized by ________ .”

“________ describes precisely what ________ is not.”

MINERAL : ORGANIC

FRUCTOSE : SOUR

FIXTURE : MOMENTUM

MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE CONDITIONS

“Something that is ________ would probably not be described as ________ .”

“A ________ person cannot also be ________ .”

PURE : SOILED

TIMID : EXPERIMENTAL

OBVIOUS : CLANDESTINE (clandestine means “secretive”)

LACK OR ABSENCE IS PART OF THE DEFINITION

“________ describes a lack of absence of ________ .”

“If something is ________ , it lacks ________ .”

DEFLATED : AIR

DIZZY : EQUILIBRIUM

IMPENITENT : REMORSE (impenitent means “lacking remorse”)

Practice Questions

Example

AIMLESS : PURPOSE
  1. copied : creativity
  2. frugal : generosity
  3. spontaneous : organization
  4. ripe : freshness
  5. inconsistent : candidness

Example Solution

AIMLESS : PURPOSE
  1. Checkcopied : creativity
  2. Crossfrugal : generosity
  3. Crossspontaneous : organization
  4. Crossripe : freshness
  5. Crossinconsistent : candidness

Explanations

The correct answer is (A). Something that is AIMLESS by definition lacks PURPOSE. Similarly, something copied by definition lacks creativity. In both cases, the two words are mutually exclusive, so choice (A) is a good analogy. Does a frugal person necessarily lack generosity? Not necessarily. A frugal person is thrifty and careful about using money; but a frugal person might nevertheless be generous to others with money. In other words, lack of generosity is not what defines frugality, so choice (B) is not a good choice. Does something spontaneous necessarily lack organization? A spontaneous (spur-of-the moment) act lacks planning, but the act itself might nevertheless be organized. So you can eliminate choice (C) as a possible answer. Does something ripe necessarily lack freshness? Not exactly. A ripe piece of fruit is ready to eat, but lack of freshness is not a defining characteristic of ripeness. Choice (D) would be a viable answer if the word pair were ripe : staleness instead. Does something inconsistent necessarily lack candidness? No. Candid means “forthright or sincere” and bears no clear relationship to inconsistent, so choice (E) isn't a good answer choice.

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Test Prep Lessons With Video Lessons and Explained MCQ

Large number of solved practice MCQ with explanations. Video Lessons and 10 Fully explained Grand/Full Tests.

Miller Analogies Test (MAT)

The Miller Analogies Test (MAT) is an exam administered by the Harcourt Assessment at Pearson testing centers. The MAT is an admissions exam accepted by many graduate programs in the United States. Additionally, it is used by many high-IQ societies across the world as an admission requirement. The MAT is intended to assess logical and analytical reasoning through completion of partial analogies. The test duration is 60 minutes and contains 120 questions. Exam formats include both computer-based tests (CBT) and paper and pencil format.